Foliage: Collectively, all the leaves of an African Violet or other plant.
Foliar Feeding: Method of fertilizing African Violets, often when leaves are found to be undernourished. Foliar feeding requires the use of a liquid or 100 percent water soluble fertilizer, which is sprayed directly onto the leaves.
Foliar Mealy Bugs: See Leaf Mealy Bugs.
Foot Candle: Unit of measure for illumination, or the amount of light that an object, such as an African Violet, is receiving. With the metric system, many light meters no longer measure foot candles, but rather lux or lumens per square meter. One foot candle equals 10.764 lux.
Fox Trot: Optimara variety belonging to the Little Dancer series. Compact African Violet (3-inch pot size) with single, bi-color flowers. Flowers are blue with a white edge. Leaves are medium green. Introduced 1997. More information.
Frankliniella occidentalis: Most common species of Thrips known to feed on African Violets.
Free Element: A term sometimes used to describe those elements which a plant receives from either air or water. Specifically, the free elements are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Friendship (1): Optimara variety belonging to the Victorian Charm series. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with frilled, lilac flowers and variegated leaves. Introduced 1995. (AVSA Reg. No. 8310) More information.
Friendship (2): The virtue which African Violets traditionally symbolize.
Frilled (1): Bloom type. Also called ruffled, undulate or wavy. Describes an African Violet flower which has a wavy appearance. First variety with frilled blooms introduced in 1953. This characteristic often accompanies a fringed bloom type.
Frilled (2): Leaf type. See Ruffled.
Fringed (1): Bloom type. Also called serrated. Describes an African Violet flower with a serrated or saw-toothed edge. This bloom type was first introduced in 1953.
Fringed (2): Leaf type. See Serrated.
Fruitworms: Sometimes called Earworms. Caterpillars known to feed on the leaves of African Violets. Fruitworms are the larvae of various moth species. More information.
Fungicide: Pesticide used to control fungus. Also see Benomyl, Captan and Sulfur.
Fungus: pl. fungi. A multi-celled organism which spreads by spores or by the growth of hyphae, i.e., threadlike extensions of the fungus which grow on or into the surface of plants. There are about 8000 fungi known to attack plants. Most thrive in warm, moist conditions, though some prefer cooler temperatures. While some fungi do little more than superficial damage to African Violets, others can be deadly. Fungi are controlled by the use of fungicides and good cultural practices, such as proper watering. Examples of fungi, and the conditions they cause, include Botrytis, Crown Rot, Powdery Mildew, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Root Rot. Also see Sooty Mold.
Fungus Gnats: Insects which feed on fungi and decaying organic matter. Fungus Gnats seldom cause damage to African Violets, but they may be considered a nuisance. Fungus Gnats measure about 1/16 inch in length and are dark yellow or brown in color. More information.
Fusako: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, blue flowers and medium green leaves. Available in the U.S. as Iowa.
Futaba: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, blue flowers and medium green leaves. Available in the U.S. as Rebecca.
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