Tag: An item included with a potted plant to identify the hybridizer and variety of the plant. While there are various types, the most common tag used on African Violets is a plant stake.
Tailored: Leaf type. Describes a plain African Violet leaf on which the areas between the veins are slightly raised. Also see Quilted.
Tamara: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, white flowers and medium green leaves. Available in the U.S. as Montana.
Tamiko: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, blue flowers and medium green leaves (red reverse). More information.
Tampa: Optimara variety. Standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with girl-type leaves. More information.
Tango: Optimara variety belonging to the Little Dancer series. Compact African Violet (3-inch pot size) with single, bi-color flowers. Flowers are purple and white. Leaves are light green. Introduced 1997. More information.
Tanzania: Country in eastern Africa where the Usambara Mountains are located, i.e., the place where the first, recorded discovery of the African Violet was made.
Taurus: Optimara variety. Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, dark pink flowers and medium green, girl-type leaves. Introduced 1988. (AVSA Reg. No. 6973) More information.
Taxonomy: The science of classifying plants and other living organisms based on their physical characteristics. Classifications in taxonomy include a genus and species, as well as other, broader groupings.
Teitensis: See Saintpaulia teitensis.
Temperature: Measure of heat. Ideal temperature for African Violets is between 65 and 75 degrees F.
Tennessee: Optimara variety. Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are frilled, white stars with a blue edge. Leaves are dark green. Introduced 1987. Improved 1995. (AVSA Reg. No. 6600 and 8336) More information.
Teressa: Rhapsodie variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are frilled, pink stars. Leaves are medium green. Introduced 1992. Improved 1997. (AVSA Reg. No. 8354) More information.
Terminal: The end of shoot or stalk.
Tetranychus urticae: Two-Spotted Spider Mites, tiny arachnids known to feed on African Violets. See Spider Mites.
Texas: Optimara variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with frilled, semi-double, blue flowers and dark green leaves. Introduced 1987. Improved 1990. (AVSA Reg. No. 6601 and 7356) More information.
Texas-Style Potting Method: Potting method developed by Jodi Davis of Austin, Texas. The method essentially recreates the natural environment in which African Violets originally grew. Specifically, the method involves laying about one inch of small, coarse gravel or perlite in the bottom of the pot, then filling with potting soil. African Violets, which have been potted with this method, are watered from the bottom using a saucer. By capillary action, water is drawn up through the gravel layer into the soil layer. (Note: The measurement given for the gravel layer is based on the use of a 4-inch pot. Decrease or increase this layer by as much as 1/2 inch for smaller or larger pots.)
Thrips: sing. Thrips. Tiny insects known to feed on African Violets. The most common species of Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is yellow in color, but Thrips may also be brown or black. Because of their very small size (about 1/50 inch), a magnifying glass may be needed to see them. In most cases, however, their presence is unmistakable. As Thrips feed, they spill pollen from the anthers, leaving a light yellow powder on the flowers. More information.
Ti: Symbol for titanium, a trace element.
Time-Release: See Slow-Release.
Tina: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with frilled, semi-double, bi-color flowers. Flowers are white with a pink edge. Leaves are dark green. Available in the U.S. as Gisela.
Tissue Culture: Also called cell culture, inflorescent culture, meristem culture or micropropagation. Method of propagation which reproduces African Violets from meristem cells. The method involves taking a tissue culture from the leaf stems and cultivating new plantlets in an agar medium which been fortified with growth hormones. While a leaf cutting may produce two or three new plantlets, it only takes a square centimeter of meristem cells to produce thousands. African Violets can also be reproduced from seed, peduncle cuttings, division, separation and by rooting a sucker.
Titanium: (Ti) Trace element which, though not fully established, may have a beneficial effect on African Violets.
Tobacco Mosaic: See Virus.
Tokyo: Optimara variety belonging to the World Traveler series. Extra large, standard African Violet (6-inch pot size) with single, pink flowers and medium green leaves. Introduced 1993. (AVSA Reg. No. 7922) More information.
Tomi: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). More information.
Tommie Lou Variegated: Leaf type. Describes a variegated African Violet leaf which is green along the midrib, but gradually changes to white at the edge. This leaf type was first introduced in 1959. Named for Tommie Louise Oden who first discovered it. Also see Champion Variegated, Mosaic Variegated and Nancy Reagan Variegated.
Tomoko: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). More information.
Tongwensis: See Saintpaulia tongwensis.
Top-Watering: Watering method whereby water is simply poured into the soil from the top. When employing a top-watering method with African Violets, it is crucial to avoid overwatering and to minimize the amount of water which might splash on the leaves. At the very least, improper watering can cause Ring Spot. In the worst cases, improper watering can encourage the growth of deadly fungi, such as those which cause Crown Rot, Root Rot and Pythium. Also see Bottom-Watering.
Topaz: Optimara super miniature variety. See Little Blue Topaz.
Tourmaline: Optimara super miniature variety. See Little Tourmaline.
Toxicity Effect: The adverse response by African Violets and other plants to an excess of a specific element. The toxicity effect may either be direct or indirect. A direct toxicity effect refers to a plant's adverse response to an excess of a particular element when the response is directly caused by that element. For instance, a direct toxicity effect of a nitrogen overload is leaf tip burn. In this case, it is the nitrogen itself which causes the symptom, and no other element need be involved to explain the effect. In contrast, an indirect toxicity effect refers to a plant's adverse response to a particular element when the response is indirectly caused by that element. For instance, an indirect toxicity effect of a copper overload is interveinal chlorosis, i.e., the leaves pale between the veins. In this case, it is not the excess of copper itself which causes the symptom. Rather, an excess of copper inhibits the plant's ability to absorb iron, resulting in an iron deficiency. It is this, the deficiency of iron, which directly causes the interveinal chlorosis.
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