Saku: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, pink flowers and dark green leaves.
Samoa: Optimara variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, bi-color flowers. Flowers are purple with a white edge. Leaves are dark green. Introduced 1990. (AVSA Reg. No. 7354) More information.
San Diego: Optimara variety. Compact, African Violet (3-inch pot size) with burgundy flowers and girl-type leaves. More information.
San Francisco: Optimara variety. Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are lilac stars. Leaves are medium green (girl-type). Introduced 1988. (AVSA Reg. No. 6971) More information.
Sap: Sometimes called cytoplasm. The juice of a plant, consisting primarily of water, dissolved elements and plant carbohydrates.
Sapphire: Optimara super miniature variety. See Little Sapphire
Sarah: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, bi-color flowers. Flowers are pink and white. Leaves are medium green. Available in the U.S. as Rosalie.
Saturn (1): Optimara variety. Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are blue stars. Leaves are dark green. Introduced 1996. More information.
Saturn (2): Early Holtkamp variety (Europe). Developed during the 1950s, the variety from which the first Holtkamp starters were marketed.
Saucer: Dish, usually made of either plastic or clay, used to hold water for a pot or self-watering device.
Sayo: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are blue stars. Leaves are dark green (red reverse). Available in the U.S. as Emilie.
Scale: Also called Scale Insects. Insects known to feed on African Violets. Scale are slow-moving insects which measure 1/16 to 1/4 inch in length. They have round, oyster-shaped bodies which come in a variety of colors, including white, gray, black, brown or yellow. Scale feed on the leaves and stems of African Violets, and they excrete honeydew which may host Sooty Mold. Common species include Fern Scale (Pinnaspis aspidistrae) and Brown Soft Scale (Coccus hesperidum). More information.
Scalloped: Leaf type. Sometimes called girl-type, so named for Blue Girl, the hybrid from which this leaf type was first developed. Describes an African Violet leaf with deeply scalloped edges, i.e., the edge forms a pattern of joined arcs or semi-circles. Often has a white or light yellow spot at the base of the leaf. Compare to Crenate and Serrated.
Scarlet: Rhapsodie variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, red flowers and medium green leaves. Introduced 1988. (AVSA Reg. No. 6990) More information.
Sciarid Flies: Insects which feed on fungi and decaying organic matter. When present, Sciarid Flies will swarm around African Violets, especially when the leaves are disturbed. They seldom cause damage to African Violets, but may be considered a nuisance. Sciarid Flies measure about 1/16 inch in length and are black or dark brown in color. More information.
Scorpio: Optimara variety. Compact African Violet (3-inch pot size) with single, lilac flowers and medium green, girl-type leaves. Introduced 1988. (AVSA Reg. No. 6991) More information.
Seattle: Optimara variety. Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are frilled, light pink stars. Leaves are dark green (girl-type). Introduced 1987. (AVSA Reg. No. 6595) More information.
Secondary Element: Also called secondary nutrient. Any of the three essential elements which, though necessary in relatively high concentrations, are not considered primary elements. The secondary elements are calcium (C), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S).
Secondary Nutrient: See Secondary Element.
Seed: A fertilized ovule. Until released, the seed of an African Violet is contained in the pistil. The seed encases the embryo of a seedling, which will begin to develop into an African Violet when the seed is placed in favorable conditions for germination. Also see Pericarp.
Seed Leaf: See Cotyledon.
Seed Pod: See Pericarp.
Seed Vessel: See Pericarp.
Seedling: Plantlet which has emerged from a seed.
Seedling Disease: See Damping Off.
Self-Fertilization: Fertilization by which pollen from an African Violet unite with the ovules of the same African Violet. As a result, the Violet will produce seeds which, when germinated, will grow into the same variety as its parent plant. Also see Cross-Fertilization.
Self-Pollination: The process by which African Violets and other plants pollinate themselves. In order for self-pollination to occur, a plant must have complete flowers, i.e., flowers with both pistil and stamen. Also see Pollination.
Self-Watering: Refers to any method for automatically or continuously providing water to African Violets and other plants. In greenhouses, plant tables are often equipped to supply water to many plants at once via capillary matting. For plants grown in containers, a number of self-watering devices are available which supply water by the use of capillary matting or wicks. Examples of this kind of self-watering device include the Watermaid, MiniWell, MaxiWell and the spill-proof WaterShip.
Self-Watering Device: Any device designed to provide African Violets and other plants with water. When used with a liquid or water-soluble fertilizer, a self-watering device can also feed plants as well. A good self-watering device for African Violets will provide a supply of water which, while continuous, will keep the soil moist, but not soggy. These devices typically consist of a reservoir or saucer, for holding up to two weeks of water, and utilize either capillary matting or wicks to transfer water to the soil. A number of reliable self-watering devices are available for African Violets, including the Watermaid, MiniWell, MaxiWell and the spill-proof WaterShip.
Semi-Double: Bloom type. Describes an African Violet flower which has more petals than a single, but not enough to be called a double.
Semi-Miniature: Description of plant size or plant type. As defined by the AVSA for purposes of judging, any African Violet which measures 6 to 8 inches in diameter. This makes a semi-miniature smaller than a standard African Violet, but larger than a miniature. While a semi-miniature is normally grown in a 3-inch pot, some growers, in the past, have referred to semi-miniatures as those African Violets grown in 2-inch pots. This has made the term confusing at times. In part due to this confusion, but also because the physical characteristics of a semi-miniature are much more akin to a standard African Violet than to a true miniature, many growers no longer use the term. Instead, growers have begun referring to these African Violets as compact.
Seminole: Optimara miniature variety. See Little Seminole Girl.
Semper Florescence: Also called continuous blooming. Bloom characteristic developed by Optimara. Semper florescence produces overlapping flowering cycles such that an African Violet will bloom continuously. Also see Multiflorescence.
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